Under normal physiologic conditions, glucose is primarily metabolized by glycolysis, with the metabolic end products proceeding to the Krebs cycle and oxidative phosphorylation. Under pathologic conditions of hyperglycemia, excessive glucose levels can overwhelm the glycolysis process and inhibit glyceraldehyde catabolism, which cause glucose shunting to other pathways: all of which produce reactive oxygen species. Chronic increased blood glucose concentration is known to cause toxic effects on the structure and function of organ systems, including the pancreas.